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World heart day 2021: Heart Attack Symptoms, Risk and Recovery
27 Jan' 21

World heart day 2021: Heart Attack Symptoms, Risk and Recovery

 
When one or more regions of the heart muscle are deprived of oxygen, a heart attack (myocardial infarction) occurs. When blood supply to the heart muscle is impeded, this occurs.   
 
What Causes a Heart Attack?   
An accumulation of plaque in the arteries causes a blockage (atherosclerosis). Deposits, cholesterol, and other things make up plaque. A blood clot forms fast when a plaque fractures (ruptures). The actual cause of the heart attack is a blood clot.   
 
When the heart's blood and oxygen supply is cut off, the heart's muscle cells suffer damage and begin to die. Within 30 minutes of the obstruction, irreversible harm occurs. As a result, the cardiac muscle that has been harmed by a lack of oxygen is no longer affected.  
 
WHO IS MORE AT RISK FROM INHERITED (GENETIC) FACTORS?    
These are the people who are most at risk:   
  • Those who have a family history of high blood pressure (hypertension)   
  • People who have a low HDL cholesterol level, a high LDL cholesterol level, or a high triglyceride level due to genetics   
  • People who have a history of heart disease in their family. This is especially true if your heart condition began before you were 55 years old.   
  • Men and women in their later years   
  • Type 1 diabetes patients   
  • Those who have experienced menopause. Men, on average, are exposed to risk at an earlier age than women. Women and men are both at danger after menopause.  
WHO IS MORE AT RISK DUE TO ACQUIRED RISK FACTORS? 
These are the people who are most at risk:   
  • Those who have developed high blood pressure (hypertension)   
  • People who have a low HDL cholesterol level, a high LDL cholesterol level, or a high triglyceride level.   
  • Those that smoke cigarettes   
  • People who are under a great deal of pressure   
  • Those who use excessive amounts of alcohol  
  • Sedentary people are those who live a sedentary lifestyle.   
  • People who are 30 percent or more overweight People who consume a high-saturated-fat diet   
  • Type 2 diabetes patients   
Anyone can have a heart attack. You can take efforts to eliminate or lessen your risk factors if you take the time to determine which ones pertain to you.  
 
Heart Attack Signs and Symptoms   
  • The most common signs and symptoms of a heart attack are listed here. However, each person's symptoms may differ slightly.   
  • For more than a few minutes, severe pressure, fullness, squeezing, pain, or discomfort in the centre of the chest   
  • Spreading pain or discomfort to the shoulders, neck, arms, or jaw   
  • Pain in the chest that is becoming worse   
  • Chest pain that doesn't go away after rest or nitroglycerin   
Chest pain that occurs in conjunction with any of the following symptoms:   
  • Sweating, clammy, chilly skin, or pallor   
  • Breathing problems   
  • Vomiting or nausea   
  • A feeling of dizziness or fainting   
  • Weakness or weariness that isn't explained   
  • Pulse that is fast or irregular  
After a heart attack, there are several options for treatment.   
 
The purpose of heart attack treatment is to alleviate pain, preserve heart muscle function, and avoid death.    

The following procedures may be performed in the emergency room:   
  • Intravenous nitroglycerin and morphine are examples of intravenous treatment
  • Heart and vital signs are constantly monitored
  • Improved oxygenation of the injured cardiac muscle with oxygen therapy   
  • Painkillers are used to alleviate discomfort. As a result, the heart's workload is reduced. The heart's oxygen requirement reduces.   
  • Beta-blockers, for example, are used to increase blood flow to the heart, enhance blood supply, avoid arrhythmias, and lower heart rate and blood pressure.   
  • Fibrinolytic therapy An intravenous infusion of a medication breaks the blood clot, allowing blood flow to resume
  • Aspirin or clopidogrel as antithrombin or antiplatelet treatment. This is used to keep the blood from clotting again  
  • Antihyperlipidemic. Lipids (fats) in the blood are reduced by these drugs, notably low-density lipid (LDL) cholesterol. Statins are an antihyperlipidemic drug class. Simvastatin, atorvastatin, and pravastatin are some of them. Other drugs that may be used to decrease cholesterol levels include bile acid sequestrants (colesevelam, cholestyramine, and colestipol) and nicotinic acid (niacin)
Other operations may be required to restore blood flow to the heart. Those procedures are described below.  
 
Angioplasty of the Coronary Arteries   
 
A balloon is utilised to generate a larger opening in the vessel to enhance blood flow in this treatment. This is frequently followed by the placement of a stent in the coronary artery to help keep it open. Angioplasty can be performed in different blood vessels throughout the body, but percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) is the term for angioplasty in the coronary arteries.
 
More blood can flow into the heart as a result of this. Percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PCI) is another name for PCI (PTCA). PTCA procedures come in a variety of forms:   
 
Angioplasty with a balloon. To unblock the clogged artery, a tiny balloon is inflated inside the artery.   
Stent for the coronary artery.To unblock the clogged artery, a small coil is inflated inside the artery. To maintain the artery open, the stent is left in place.   
Atherectomy.
 
A little device on the end of a catheter is used to chip away at the blocked spot inside the artery.   
Angioplasty with a laser. A laser is used to "vaporise" the arterial obstruction.  
 
Bypassing the Coronary Arteries  
   
Bypass surgery, or CABG, is the most frequent name for this procedure. It is frequently performed on persons who have angina (chest pain) and coronary artery disease. The plaque has built up in the arteries, causing coronary artery disease. A bypass is created during surgery by grafting a portion of the vein above and below the blocked region of a coronary artery. This allows blood to flow around the obstruction.
 
The surgeon normally takes veins from the leg, but arteries from the chest or arm may also be used. To restore blood flow to all parts of the heart, you may need more than one bypass surgery. 

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