Visual stories

Categories

Which toxin causes scarlet fever?
27 Jan' 21

Which toxin causes scarlet fever?

 

 What is scarlet fever, and what causes it?  

Scarlet fever is a bacterial infection caused by Streptococcus bacteria from the group A family. This illness affects a small percentage of persons with strep throat (streptococcal pharyngitis) and, on rare occasions, streptococcal skin infections or wound infections. In past articles, scarlet fever was referred to as scarlatina; group A Streptococcus (for example, Streptococcus pyogenes) is commonly abbreviated as "group A strep" or "group A beta-hemolytic streptococci" (GABHS). The sunburned-skin-colored sandpaper-like skin rash that is linked with scarlet fever is the most well-known feature of the disease. 

  

What causes scarlet fever? 

Scarlet fever is caused by the bacterium beta-hemolytic streptococci (GABHS). While infecting a body site, these gram-positive coccus-shaped (elliptically formed) organisms can create an erythrogenic (red-colored) toxin. This toxin is responsible for the sandpaper-like red rash on the skin. According to studies, around 80% of children who reach the age of ten have generated lifelong protective antibodies against the Streptococcus exotoxin. Impetigo, skin desquamation, myositis, acute rheumatic fever, and necrotizing fasciitis are some of the other signs and/or diseases caused by these bacteria. 

How long does it take for scarlet fever to develop?  

Scarlet fever has an incubation period that can last anywhere from 12 hours to seven days. During the first subclinical or incubation period, as well as during the acute sickness, individuals are contagious. The contagious element of strep infection is the main infection. The rash is not communicable in and of itself.  

  

Scarlet fever has a number of risk factors.  

Overcrowding is one of the risk factors for scarlet fever (schools, dormitories, institutional settings). Scarlet fever is most commonly observed in children between the ages of 5 and 15, while it can also affect older children and adults. Scarlet fever is uncommon in children under the age of two. 

  

When does scarlet fever become contagious?  

As previously noted, scarlet fever is contagious during both the first subclinical (before symptoms arise) phase, which occurs 12 hours to seven days after an initial encounter with the bacteria, and the acute phase, which happens when the person has the rash and fever. 

 

What are the symptoms and indications of scarlet fever?  

A reddish painful throat, a temperature (101 F or higher), a widespread red rash (exanthem) with a sandpaper-like texture, and a tongue that resembles a strawberry are all symptoms and indicators of scarlet fever (red with small bumps also termed strawberry tongue). Some individuals experience a whitish coating on their tongue or throat, as well as swollen lymph nodes glands, headaches, abdominal pain or discomfort that causes nausea and vomiting, and/or body aches. "Goose pimples (papule) on scorched skin" or "boiled-lobster" skin have been used to characterize the scarlet fever rash in the past. 

Scarlet fever is diagnosed in a variety of ways by doctors.  

In most situations, a provisional diagnosis of scarlet fever will be made based on the patient's history and physical examination. Patias's signs or Thompson's signs, for example, are pink or red lines that appear in the skin folds of the armpits and groin. The lines may appear before the rash appears and may persist after desquamation as pigmented lines (skin peeling off). To determine if GABHS are present, a health care professional may obtain a throat culture or swab (or, more rarely, swabs from a wound or other sites of infection). Unfortunately, many other illnesses, such as measles, can result in both a rash and a fever. 

 

Also read Kawasaki disease criteria

 

What is scarlet fever treatment?  

Antibiotics that are efficient against GABHS are used to treat scarlet fever. Early therapy usually involves taking an oral penicillin drug (such as amoxicillin) for around 10 days. Some patients may only require a single injection of penicillin G benzathine in rare cases (Bicillin L-A). This is most typically used when a patient is unable to keep oral antibiotics in their system. Members of the cephalosporin family are also effective antibiotics (for example, cephalexin [Keflex]). GABHS resistance to popular antibiotics used to treat scarlet fever was discovered in a recent outbreak in China. Antibiotics may help to reduce scarlet fever complications. 

 

For expert advice click here 

Comments

Write your first comment.

Leave us reply:

Related Blogs

AIDS
07 Dec' 21

AIDS

AIDS, or acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, is a chronic, possibly fatal condition caused by the human immunodeficiency virus (HI...
Is Zika virus contagious?
07 Nov' 21

Is Zika virus contagious?

The Zika virus is a mosquito-borne flavivirus that was first discovered in monkeys in Uganda in 1947. It was originally detected i...
Why jaundice occurs in newborn?
07 Nov' 21

Why jaundice occurs in newborn?

The majority of newborn newborns turn a little yellow. This condition, known as jaundice, is a very frequent and typically harmles...
Psoriasis treatment
07 Nov' 21

Psoriasis treatment

Psoriasis is a skin condition that causes red, itchy scaly patches on the knees, elbows, trunk, and scalp, among other places. Ps...
What are the effects of Raynaud's disease?
07 Nov' 21

What are the effects of Raynaud's disease?

Raynaud's illness (ray-NOSE) causes numbness and coldness in some parts of your body, such as your fingers and toes, in response t...
How rickets affect your life?
07 Nov' 21

How rickets affect your life?

Rickets is a condition in which children's bones soften and deteriorate as a result of a severe and long-term vitamin D deficit. G...
Scurvy explained
07 Nov' 21

Scurvy explained

Scurvy, also known as severe vitamin C deficiency, is a disease caused by a lack of vitamin C. Vitamin C, also known as ascorbic a...
How does alkaptonuria affect the human body?
07 Nov' 21

How does alkaptonuria affect the human body?

Alkaptonuria, sometimes known as "black urine illness," is a rare genetic disorder in which the body is unable to fully break down...
Why does vertigo keep coming back?
07 Nov' 21

Why does vertigo keep coming back?

Vertigo is a sense of being thrown off balance. You may feel as if you are spinning or that the world around you is spinning if yo...
Yes, the Bubonic Plague is still present, but there's no need to be concerned
07 Nov' 21

Yes, the Bubonic Plague is still present, but there's no need to be concerned

The plague is a dangerous bacterial infection spread mostly by fleas. Yersinia pestis, the bacterium that causes plague, dwells in...
Why leprosy is referred to as living death?
07 Nov' 21

Why leprosy is referred to as living death?

Leprosy is a contagious disease that causes disfiguring skin sores and nerve damage in the arms, legs, and other regions of the bo...
Can benign prostatic hyperplasia be cured?
07 Nov' 21

Can benign prostatic hyperplasia be cured?

The most frequent benign tumor in males is benign prostatic hyperplasia, which is a noncancerous growth of the prostate gland. BP...
Can glaucoma be cured?
07 Nov' 21

Can glaucoma be cured?

Glaucoma is a set of eye diseases that affect the optic nerve, which transmits visual information from the retina to the brain and...
Pelvic inflammatory disease symptoms and treatment
07 Nov' 21

Pelvic inflammatory disease symptoms and treatment

The infection of the female reproductive organs is known as a pelvic inflammatory disease (PID). It usually happens when bacteria ...
Will appendicitis go away?
07 Nov' 21

Will appendicitis go away?

Appendicitis is an inflammation of the appendix, a finger-shaped pouch on the lower right side of your belly that projects from yo
Hepatitis A symptoms and treatment
07 Nov' 21

Hepatitis A symptoms and treatment

Hepatitis A is a liver infection brought on by the hepatitis A virus (HAV). The virus is spread largely when an uninfected (and un...
Will ulcerative colitis go away ?
07 Nov' 21

Will ulcerative colitis go away ?

The inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) ulcerative colitis causes inflammation and ulcers (sores) in the digestive tract. The innermo...
What causes a urinary tract infection?
07 Oct' 21

What causes a urinary tract infection?

A urinary tract infection (UTI) affects any component of your urinary system, including the kidneys, ureters, bladder, and urethra...
What causes Anemia ?
07 Oct' 21

What causes Anemia ?

Anemia is a disorder in which the blood has an insufficient number of red blood cells. Anemia can make it harder for tissues to ac...
Can tetanus kill you ?
07 Oct' 21

Can tetanus kill you ?

Tetanus is a dangerous nervous system infection caused by toxin-producing bacteria. Muscle spasms, particularly in the jaw and nec...
Will Lyme disease kill you ?
07 Oct' 21

Will Lyme disease kill you ?

Lyme disease is caused by four different bacterium types. Lyme disease is caused by Borrelia burgdorferi and Borrelia mayonii in t...
Wilsons Disease symptoms and treatment
07 Oct' 21

Wilsons Disease symptoms and treatment

Wilson's illness is a rare genetic condition in which copper builds up in the liver, brain, and other important organs. Wilson's i...
Cholera
07 Oct' 21

Cholera

Cholera is a bacterial infection spread by drinking polluted water. Cholera causes dehydration and severe diarrhea. Cholera, if le...
Retinoblastoma
07 Oct' 21

Retinoblastoma

Retinoblastoma is a type of eye cancer that starts in the retina, which is the delicate inner lining of your eye. Retinoblastoma i...
Irritable bowel syndrome
07 Oct' 21

Irritable bowel syndrome

Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) affects the large intestine and is a prevalent condition. Cramping, abdominal pain, bloating, gas, ...
Kawasaki disease criteria
07 Oct' 21

Kawasaki disease criteria

Swelling (inflammation) of the walls of medium-sized arteries throughout the body is a symptom of Kawasaki illness. It is primaril...
Xeroderma pigmentosum
07 Oct' 21

Xeroderma pigmentosum

Xeroderma pigmentosum (XP) is a relatively rare skin disorder in which a person is extremely photosensitive, has rapid skin ageing...
Parkinson's disease symptoms and treatment
07 Oct' 21

Parkinson's disease symptoms and treatment

This degenerative condition, which usually strikes adults over the age of 65, gradually robs people of their motor abilities, leav...
Keratosis pilaris
07 Oct' 21

Keratosis pilaris

Keratosis pilaris is a benign skin disorder that develops dry, rough patches and little bumps on the upper arms, thighs, cheeks, a...
Tuberculosis
07 Oct' 21

Tuberculosis

Tuberculosis (TB) is a potentially fatal infectious illness affecting mostly the lungs. Tuberculosis bacteria are communicated fro...
Rheumatic Fever
07 Oct' 21

Rheumatic Fever

Rheumatic fever is an inflammatory condition that can arise from untreated strep throat or scarlet fever. An infection with the st...
Kwashiorkor
07 Oct' 21

Kwashiorkor

What is the cause of kwashiorkor? Lack of protein in the diet causes Kwashiorkor. Protein is found in every cell in your body...
Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE)
07 Oct' 21

Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE)

Lupus is a disease in which the immune system of your body assaults your tissues and organs (autoimmune disease). Lupus can induce...
Measles
07 Oct' 21

Measles

Measles, often known as rubeola, is a dangerous illness that can be fatal in young children. Despite the fact that death rates hav...
Shigella
07 Oct' 21

Shigella

Shigellosis (Shigella infection) is an intestinal infection caused by the shigella bacteria family. The most common symptom of shi...
Hemorrhoids
07 Oct' 21

Hemorrhoids

Hemorrhoids, often known as piles, are bulging veins in the anus and lower rectum that resemble varicose veins. Internal hemorrhoi...
What is fatty liver disease and what can be done about it?
07 Oct' 21

What is fatty liver disease and what can be done about it?

Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), a condition characterized by abnormal fat deposition in the liver, is on the rise in th...
What exactly is Dengue Fever?
07 Oct' 21

What exactly is Dengue Fever?

Dengue viruses are transmitted to humans via mosquito bites from infected Aedes species (Aedes aegypti or Aedes albopictus). Dengu...
Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome, What Exactly is PCOS?
07 Oct' 21

Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome, What Exactly is PCOS?

Skin and hair problems are often the most visible symptoms of PCOS, and thus the cause for seeking medical help. Menstrual abnorma...
World heart day 2021: Heart Attack Symptoms, Risk and Recovery
07 Sep' 21

World heart day 2021: Heart Attack Symptoms, Risk and Recovery

When one or more regions of the heart muscle are deprived of oxygen, a heart attack (myocardial infarction) occurs. When blood sup...
Rabies
07 Sep' 21

Rabies

Rabies is a lethal virus that can be avoided. If bitten or scratched by a rabid animal, it can transmit to humans and pets. Rabies...
Black fungus: All you need to know
07 Sep' 21

Black fungus: All you need to know

Amid the fear of the COVID-19 pandemic, a new sickness has developed as an epidemic in areas of India. Mucormycosis, often known a...
Deep Vein Thrombosis
07 Sep' 21

Deep Vein Thrombosis

When a cut is sealed, blood clots can save your life. When they form inside an artery or vein, they can be hazardous, even fatal. ...