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Retinoblastoma
27 Jan' 21

Retinoblastoma

 

 

Retinoblastoma is a type of eye cancer that starts in the retina, which is the delicate inner lining of your eye. Retinoblastoma is more frequent in young children, although it can also strike adults.  

 

The nerve tissue in your retina detects light as it passes through the front of your eye. The retina provides impulses to your brain via the optic nerve, which are then translated into images.Retinoblastoma, a rare type of eye cancer, is the most frequent cancer of the eye in youngsters. Retinoblastoma is a cancer of the retina that can affect one or both eyes. 

 

 

Causes  

 

Retinoblastoma is caused by a genetic mutation (a change in a child's genes). RB1 is the gene that causes retinoblastoma. The mutation causes uncontrollable cell growth in the eye, resulting in a tumor. Around 40% of the time, the RB1 mutation is passed down from one parent to the child (heritable retinoblastoma). In roughly 60% of cases, the gene mutation happens on its own. Healthcare providers aren't sure what triggered the genetic abnormality in those circumstances (nonheritable retinoblastoma). 

Around 60% of children with heritable retinoblastoma have tumors in both eyes (bilateral), while 30% develop tumors in just one eye. Although the remaining 10% of children do not acquire retinal tumors, they are carriers of the gene. Cancers in both eyes can develop at the same time or months or years apart in children who acquire both eyes tumors. Nonheritable retinoblastoma causes tumors in only one eye in children (unilateral).

 

 

Symptoms  

 

Symptoms of retinoblastoma are uncommon because it usually affects newborns and little children. You may observe the following signs:  

 

  

  • When light is thrown in the eye, such as when someone takes a flash photograph of the youngster, a white hue appears in the center circle of the pupil (pupil).  
  • Eyes that seem to be staring in several directions  
  • Seeing problems  
  • Redness in the eyes  
  • Swelling of the eyes  

 

Diagnosis   

 

The following tests and techniques are used to diagnose retinoblastoma:  

 

 

Examine your eyes. An eye exam will be performed by your eye doctor to discover what is causing your child's signs and symptoms. The doctor may prescribe anesthetics to keep your child calm for a more comprehensive examination.  

 

Imaging tests are performed. Your child's doctor can use scans and other imaging tests to see if the retinoblastoma has spread to other structures surrounding the eye. Ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are two examples of imaging tests. 

 

 

Treatment  

 

The best therapies for your child's retinoblastoma are determined by the tumor's size and location if cancer has progressed to other parts of the body, your child's overall health, and your personal preferences. The goal of treatment is to eliminate cancer completely. Doctors aim to find therapies that do not require the removal of the eye or the loss of vision wherever possible. 

 

  • Chemotherapy  
  • Radiation therapy  
  • Laser therapy  
  • Cryotherapy  
  • Eye removal surgery  

 

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