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Measles
27 Jan' 21

Measles

 

Measles is a viral sickness that affects children. Measles, which was once extremely common, can now nearly always be prevented with a vaccine.  

Measles, often known as rubeola, is a dangerous illness that can be fatal in young children. Despite the fact that death rates have been declining globally as more children receive the measles vaccine, the disease still kills over 100,000 people each year, the majority of whom are youngsters under the age of five.  
 
Symptoms  
Around 10 to 14 days after exposure to the virus, measles signs and symptoms occur. The following are common measles signs and symptoms:  
  • Fever  
  • Coughing that is dry  
  • a stuffy nose  
  • Throat irritation  
  • Eyes that are inflamed (conjunctivitis)  
  • Koplik's spots are tiny white dots with bluish-white centers on a red backdrop located inside the mouth on the inner lining of the cheek.  
  • A rash that consists of large, flat spots that frequently flow into one another.
Over the course of two to three weeks, the infection progresses through a series of stages. 
  • Infection and incubation are two different things. The measles virus incubates for 10 to 14 days after you've been infected. During this time, you show no signs or symptoms of measles.  
  • Symptoms and indicators that aren't specific. Measles is characterized by a mild to moderate fever, as well as a persistent cough, runny nose, swollen eyes (conjunctivitis), and a painful throat. This short-term illness could last two or three days.  
  • Illness with a rash. Small red dots, some of which are slightly elevated, make up the rash. The skin appears splotchy red due to clusters of spots and pimples. The face is the first to break out.
The rash spreads down the arms and trunk during the next few days, then over the thighs, lower legs, and feet. At the same time, the fever climbs rapidly, reaching temperatures of 104 to 105.8 degrees Fahrenheit (40 to 41 C). The measles rash fades over time, starting on the face and ending on the thighs and feet.  
 
This is a communicable period. A person with measles can transfer the virus to others for eight days, beginning four days before the rash develops and ending four days after the rash emerges.  
 
When should you see a doctor?  
If you suspect you or your kid may have been exposed to measles or if you or your child has a rash that looks like measles, call your doctor.  
 
Causes  
Measles is a highly contagious disease caused by a virus that replicates in an infected child's or adult's nose and throat. When a person with measles coughs, sneezes, or speaks, infectious droplets spray into the air, where they can be inhaled by others.  
Infected droplets can also land on a surface and stay active and contagious for several hours. After touching a contaminated surface, you can get the virus by putting your fingers in your mouth or nose, or rubbing your eyes.  
 
When exposed to someone who has the virus, over 90% of those who are vulnerable will become infected.
 
Risk factors  
The following are some of the measles risk factors:  
  • Not having been immunized. You have a substantially higher chance of contracting measles if you haven't had the vaccine.  
  • Traveling on a global scale. You're more likely to contract measles if you visit to developing countries where the disease is more prevalent.  
  • A vitamin A deficit is a condition in which the body lacks the vitamin A it needs to function properly. You're more likely to have more severe symptoms and consequences if you don't get enough vitamin A in your diet.
Complications  
Measles complications can include:  
  • Infection in the ear. A bacterial ear infection is one of the most prevalent side effects of measles.  
  • Bronchitis, laryngitis, or croup are all possible causes of croup. The measles can cause inflammation of your voice box (larynx) or the inner walls that line your lungs' main air channels (bronchial tubes).  
  • Pneumonia. Pneumonia is a common measles consequence. People with weakened immune systems are more likely to acquire a particularly deadly type of pneumonia, which can be fatal.  
  • Encephalitis. Encephalitis is a consequence of measles that affects about 1 in 1,000 persons. Encephalitis can develop immediately following measles or months later.
  • Obstacles to pregnancy If you're pregnant, you should take extra precautions to avoid getting measles because it can result in preterm labor, low birth weight, and maternal mortality.

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