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Can glaucoma be cured?
27 Jan' 21

Can glaucoma be cured?

 

 

Glaucoma is a set of eye diseases that affect the optic nerve, which transmits visual information from the retina to the brain and allows humans to see. The optic nerve is gradually destroyed with glaucoma, resulting in progressive vision loss and irreversible blindness. Due to the gradual nature of the damage, it frequently remains unreported until it is too late. Glaucoma can lead to a lower quality of life, and increased risk of falling, decreased mobility, and trouble driving as it progresses.  

  

Glaucoma is frequently accompanied by a rise in intraocular pressure. Healthy eyes produce aqueous fluid, which runs through and out of the eye. This procedure does not perform effectively in glaucoma, resulting in increased eye pressure and optic nerve damage. The anatomy of the drainage pathway in the front of the eye (known as the angle) through which aqueous fluid passes determines the two primary kinds of glaucoma: open-angle glaucoma and angle-closure glaucoma.  

  

The angle seems open in open-angle glaucoma, but pressure management is inadequate due to a variety of ocular causes, including drainage issues. Both high and normal ocular pressures can cause this type of glaucoma (normal-tension glaucoma). Both subtypes can cause vision loss and optic nerve injury. 

The angle in angle-closure glaucoma is narrow, and the structural abnormalities that result might cause an abrupt closing of the drainage pathway, increasing ocular pressure. Acute angle closure is the medical term for this ailment. Although uncommon, acute angle-closure glaucoma is a medical emergency that necessitates quick treatment with medication, laser, or surgery since it can result in irreversible blindness. Angle-closure glaucoma can also be diagnosed and treated in a chronic form, in which the increase in ocular pressure is more gradual and typically without symptoms. 

  

What people are at risk for glaucoma?  

  

While several related genes have been found, the underlying causes of glaucoma remain unknown.  

  

However, several key risk factors have been discovered, including the following:  

  • more than 60 years old (40 for African Americans)  
  • a first-degree relative who suffers from glaucoma  
  • East and Southeast Asian descent African American or Hispanic descent (for angle-closure glaucoma)  
  • many eye operations or a history of eye trauma  
  • steroid medicines are used to treat chronic eye problems such as diabetic eye disease, severely near-sightedness, or far-sightedness. 

  

What are some of the signs and symptoms of glaucoma?  

  

For years, most persons with glaucoma, especially those with open-angle or normal-tension glaucoma, may have no or very few symptoms. It's probably not surprising that half of all glaucoma cases go untreated, highlighting the importance of frequent eye exams beginning at age 40. An eye care specialist will be able to spot glaucoma symptoms before you do, and prompt treatment is critical to minimizing disease progression and vision loss.    

Early indicators of glaucoma include a loss of peripheral vision and difficulties with low contrast. Patients acquire loss of their visual field, or blind spots, as the disease progresses. 

What are your therapy options?  

 Although there is no cure for glaucoma at this time, timely treatment can help decrease or stop vision loss. Treatment for glaucoma may include drugs and/or surgery to lower eye pressure, depending on a variety of factors such as your age and the kind and severity of your glaucoma.  

  

Eye drops that seek to improve fluid outflow or decrease fluid production are among the medications available. In the event of angle-closure glaucoma, a laser is occasionally used to enhance drainage (in the angle) or make a hole in the iris, or colored area of the eye. 

  

Glaucoma treatment in the future  

 Glaucoma research continues to advance our understanding of the disease's causes and the development of more targeted and tailored treatments. Beyond the primary categories described above, there are subtypes of glaucoma that many people believe will benefit from different treatments. Genetic testing may be used in the future to estimate an individual's risk of acquiring glaucoma over time. Neuroprotection (the treatment of preventing the loss of nerve cells in the retina and optic nerve) has also shown potential. To make surgery more safe and sucessful, researchers are researching novel medications, drug delivery technologies, and innovations. 

 

Also read LASIK surgery 

  

Early detection is critical.  

If you're concerned about glaucoma, especially if it runs in your family, the best course of action is to see your eye doctor frequently. Even if your vision is normal, every adult should get a baseline eye exam at the age of 40. Glaucoma vision loss can be reduced with therapy, thus early detection is crucial.

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